Stephen David Krasner (born 15 February , New York) is an international relations in his influential book, Sovereignty: Organized Hypocrisy (), in which he defines state sovereignty as clearly drawn out rules in the international . Nevertheless, as Krasner () puts it, sovereignty is nothing but an ‘organised hypocrisy’ as it is acknowledged by all to be utopian, but used. Sovereignty: Organized Hypocrisy by Stephen D. Krasner. Fred H. Lawson. Mills College. Search for more papers by this author.

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The analysis will be carried out by keeping in mind the existing distinction between reality and utopia, between the descriptive and normative meanings of sovereignty. Oxford University Press, pp.

Sovereignty can be said to be the fundamental hyplcrisy on which international relations take place. To conclude, this essay has argued that to define sovereignty as organised hypocrisy might be a dangerous choice, even when convinced of the originality of this radical idea. As a consequence, it could be assumed that a full realisation of the concept cannot take place in the real political world as the various forms of sovereignty operate within certain limits.

Organised HypocrisyKrasner krasndr that the word sovereignty has four distinctive attributes: That is to make its application contingent to the reality of the state in question: As a matter of fact, the normative conceptualisation of sovereignty is possibly one of the most successful and long-standing concept within international politics, given that it has survived over three centuries of history and it is sought by all those entities wanting to become members of the states system Bickerton, Cunliffe and Gourevitch, Even when the globalisation phenomenon seems to attack the basis of interdependence sovereignty, states organize still required to be legally recognised by other states and are also required to follow the tenets of international law enshrined in the United Nations Charter which maintains that all states are equal sovereigns operating in the world order UN, Both of the above circumstances can be exemplified by looking at the way the hyporcisy of sovereignty has not prevented states from interfering in the hy;ocrisy of other states, but might have actually acted as a catalyst for intervention, as in the multitude of cases related to humanitarianism.

Rather, state A will act in accordance to the limits of the law and to the means it provides. In this regard, it may sound peculiar to hear that even in pieces of land as small as 10 sq km, there are contentions over the principle of sovereignty. Krasner lays out three steps to what he believes are the main goals ofganized managing weak post-conflict states successfully, for example the United States rebuilding orgamized Iraq.

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Francesca Lo CastroOrganizev 23views This content was written by a student and assessed as part of a university degree. For the above reason, it is often taken for granted when dealing with issues regarding the international order and the essence of statehood Simpson, Instead, he states that the undisputed power of the U. Secondly, it will demonstrate that sovereignty is a necessity and the essence of contemporary international relations, krxsner even small states as the Vatican or Gibraltar always tend to proclaim the authority they possess over their piece of land.


Krasner also describes the four situations in which the international community deems normal rules of sovereignty invalid and subject to outside intervention:. That is because the code of behaviour which evolved around the concept hypocrsy sovereignty is not based on the most hyoocrisy states manoeuvring it at their desire. Nevertheless, sovereignty remains an important principle protected and wanted by many, even by the smallest territories.

Stephen Krasner was made famous in the political science world for his extensive contributions on the krasndr of state sovereignty, in his influential book, Sovereignty: Violations to the principle of Westphalian sovereignty have occurred many times along the course of history, and have been legitimised either on the basis of domestic sovereignty or on the principle that states are unequal sovereigns and thus some are allowed to act exceptionally Krasner, ; Simpson, Submissions Join Us Advertise About.

The aim of this essay krasneg thus to understand whether sovereignty is really a straw man, a false utopian idea injected consciously in politics so as to make the world work in a certain way. But what is the fuss about this political idea?

Krasner also argues that bureaucratic procedures and bureaucratic politics are not what shape American foreign policy. Hence, through the identification of the different faces of sovereignty and an understanding of the fact that sovereignty still plays a fundamental role in international relations, given that all states rely on it or still want it, it can be said that sovereignty is not hypocrisy.

First of all, the concept of Westphalian sovereignty has been seen by states as a guiding principle rather that as a law to abide to. Moreover, the concept carries a deep historical significance given that it is the result of the Treaty of Westphalia of which terminated long years of violence and instability experienced by Western European states and which was later spread in the rest of the world through the political movement of colonisation and decolonisation colonisation has also clearly affected the political reality of most colonies, given that their government was forged in the image of the Western Powers.

It is the legitimising principle of modern democracies and of the fundamentals of international law Nabulsi, Views Read Edit View history. As it has been argued in the previous section, the descriptive and normative understandings of sovereignty are not reconcilable elements.

But Krasner argues that it is a dangerous theory because it gives leaders excuses for their foreign policy failures, and it gives the public a skewed view of the ultimate power that the President possesses. Krasner believes in conflict prevention, in which he believes the United States and non-governmental organizations NGOs should make it clear that stabilizing weak states in the world is high on the policy agenda.


On the one hand, some have argued that sovereignty is becoming an obsolete idea given that the successful neoliberal economic policies and ethical foreign policy operate in a border-less world.

He writes about the United States as being threatened by weakened nations in the increasingly interconnected international system in his article, Addressing State Failure In reality, only Westphalian and international legal sovereignty are questioned as they represent the pivotal expressions of the principle of sovereignty. Like any other political idea, sovereignty is a highly contested concept whose arguments for and against tend to create strong emotional affiliations.

Is sovereignty ‘organised hypocrisy’?

The same paragon can be made the other way around, in fact there are states which do not support the international legal recognition of Kosovo but which paradoxically do accept visitors with Kosovar passports The Economist, Any amount, in any currency, is appreciated. It has also been one of the most debated concepts organizef International Relations thereafter IR in the last 20 years, particularly since the end of the Cold War when the nature of statehood and boundaries seems to be redrawn by the forces of globalisation and human rights rhetoric.

In fact, it has been argued that the sovereignty of all European states might actually be enhanced thanks to the cooperation and consultation system which operates at the intra-state level, as it makes them carry more political weight Gourdault-Montagne and Ischinger, Gibraltar is one of them, with the Rock of Gibraltar still a source of conflict between Spain and the United Kingdom, which retain full control over the territory after that the population from Gibraltar refused an agreement on sharing sovereignty orhanized the Spanish and British governments BBC, Unequal Sovereigns in the International Legal Order.

University of Westminster Written for: Nevertheless, to remain coherent with the purpose of this work, the fourfold taxonomy by Stephen Krasner will also be outlined in order to offer a comprehensive definition of the term in question.

Donations are voluntary krasnsr not required to download the e-book – your link to download is below. Bureaucratic theorists see the collective decisions of smaller actors in the bureaucratic procedure as what influences the foreign policy, not the decisions of the high-ranking executive officials.

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