Inventing Europe: idea, identity, reality. Front Cover. Gerard Delanty. Macmillan, – History – Bibliographic information. QR code for Inventing Europe. I{ETlllNKlNC IRTSH HISTORy (with patrick O’Mahony). Inventing Europe. Idea, Identity, Reality. Gerard Delanty. Senior LÄ›crurer in Sociology. U niversity of Liver . Inventing Europe: Idea, Identity, Reality, Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke,

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Orient and Occident, then, had quite different mean- ings from the connotations they were later to acquire when the centre of civil- isation shifted westwards.

This was euroe prove an enduring distinc- The Origins of the Idea of Europe 19 tion and still remains one of the geographical definitions invehting Europe. He thus exhorted the ‘nations ofEurope’ to a crusade against the Turks Coles,p.

The West more or less abandoned the Mediterranean and the Byzantines were left to take the initiative on the east- ern front. Like the East, the Roman world was a maritime civilisation based on cities and written cultures.

The Carolingian Renaissance was also a ‘European’ movement. In they defeated the Arabs in a major battle and, until the rise of the Seljuq dynasty in the mid-eleventh century, they pursued an offensive policy which held the Arabs at bay Obolcnsky,p.

Moreover, the history of Europe is the history not only of its unifying ideas, but also of its divisions and frontiers, both inter- nal and external. A sense of European identity existed by the fifteenth century, but it was an identity that was shaped more by defeat than by victory and was buttressed by the image of the Orient as its common enemy. This new framework is what we call Europe: I should like to emphasise that this book is written for social and political scientists and not for historians.

According to Haypp. The Seljuk victory over the Byzantines at the Battle of Manzikcrt in won them most of Anatolia and precipitated four centuries of crusades. The author traces the origins of what he calls the discourse of Europcanism to forces lying deep in European history, such as the unify ing and integrating mvths of medieval Christendom, the Enlightenment and ninctcenth-ccnturv nationalism, w hose world-views have exerted an endur- ing hold over the European idea.

Equally important was the tact that both Europe and Islam had to compete for control of the same territory, which became the east- ern frontier of the West Moreover, the danger was not always military, but the fcarofmassconversion to Islam Lewis, a.


[ Gerard Delanty] Inventing Europe 1995

delnaty The war in Bosnia is another factor seriously undermining the prospect and possibility of a European identity. As the geo-political name for a civilisation, Europe also signified its cultural value spheres.

This ambivalence is apparent in an unresolved tension between two models of collective identity: The crux of the problem is the relation of Europe as a cultural idea to concrete forms of collective’ identity-building and its structuring in the geo-political framework which we call Europe.

With the exception of China, the only cultures that ever challenged this were eventually either defeated or assimilated. Then, with the Byzantine empire laying claim to the imperial tradition, the identity of the western half came gradually to rest on Latin Christianity.

For the civilisations of antiquity the idea of Europe was relatively unim- portant and did not come to designate the continent of Europe until the rise of Islam in the seventh century. So the European idea is not just only a hegemon- ic idea; it should be seen as a totalising idea that collapses at the point of becoming hegemonic. With the rise of Islam, the ancient links between East and West took on the character of an endur- ing antagonism, and in this great and far-reaching shift in the formation of the identity of modern Europe, the northern and southern parts of Europe, for long separated by the Alps, merged to form medieval Christendom.

Full text of “[ Gerard Delanty] Inventing Europe “

One of the central characteristics of Europe as a geo-political entity is the process in which the core penetrated into the periphery to produce a power- ful system of control and dependency. The notion of Europe as a geographical term became increasingly applied to the Christian parts of the West.

A new border emerged, ekrope from the Baltic Sea to the Black Sea. So, Occident and Orient evolved to refer to the two halves of the Roman Empire.

Inventing Europe: Idea, Identity, Reality

Until the late fifteenth century the idea of Europe was principally a geo- graphical expression and subordinated to Eeurope which was the dom- inant identity system in the West.

A great network of roads and seaways connected areas as far apart as the Thames and the Euphrates. It is primarily intended for students of the social and political sciences looking for a critical analysis of problems of European identity in the broader perspective of history.

Christ was Europeanised and the crucifixion, after the euroep century, became the universal symbol of European mastery.

This enduring division, which has shaped the face of Europe until the present day, was also reflect- ed in the schism within the Christian church itself, whose two halves spoke different languages and eventually acquired different cultural and ecclesias- eurppe customs Chadwick. The structures W which these are linked are me economy, the state, culture invennting society. But with the gradual acceptance of Christianity by the northern tribes, from the Franks to the Vikings, the barbarian threat to Christendom was over and something like a European order was consolidated.


Ptolemy, in the second century ad, used the delnty Sarmatia and distinguished between Sarmatia Europea and Sarmatia Asiatica with the River Don sep- arating them Halecki,p.

Chapter4 deals with the enclosure of the idea of Europe in west- ern Europe. In both cases the result is the same: However, further advance in the Iberian penin- sula failed until the thirteenth century as a result of a renewal of the Arab power. The point at issue is the manner in which a soci- ety europ itself in time and space with reference to a cultural model.

In fact, the possibility of an alliance between Europe and the Mongols had been a very real possibility in iinventing thirteenth century Phillips,pp. Following a brief period of reunification Constantine trans- ferred the capital to Constantinople inand in the Roman Empire finally split into two parts, the Eastern and Western Empires.

As a strictly geographical concept there are studies by Cahnman ,” Louis and Parker The division of the Roman Empire into two parts in by the Emperor Diocletian was crucial in the shaping of the future antagonism between east and west. J3ut Europe is more than a region and invening, it is also an idea and an identity.

Inventing Europe – Gerard Delanty – Google Books

The thesis I should like to propose, then, is that it is important that the idea of Europe be separated from Universal ethical validity claims disguised as an essential ist ethno-culturalism. While the Germanic tribes were undermining the empire from the north, the Persians were attacking from the east. There is little historical congruily between the modern notion of Europe as the West and the ancient idea of Europe.

Western Europe was weak in comparison with the Orient. A Theoretical Introduction This book is about how every age reinvented invenfing idea of Europe in the mir- ror of its own identity.

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