Alexandre Kojève (). Introduction to the Reading of Hegel. Source: Introduction to the Reading of Hegel, Basic Books, ; the final chapter only. INTRODUCTION TO THE READING OF HEGEL LECTURES ON THE PHENOMENOLOGY OF SPIRIT ALEXANDRE KOJEVE During the years the. among contemporary left Hegelians none has been so influential as. Alexandre Kojeve, whose brilliant Introduction to the Reading of Hegel. ()’ is viewed as .
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Thus, all action is “negating.
He reveals in addition— also by Speech— the being that reveals Being, the being that readingg himself is, the revealing being that he opposes to the revealed being by giving it the name Ich or Selbst, I or Self. He sees it only in the Master, who realized pure “negating-negativity” by risking his life in the fight for recognition.
In the beginning, as long as he is not yet actually recognized by the other, it is the other that is the end of his action; it is on this other, it is on recognition by this other, that his human value and reality depend; it is in this other that the meaning of his life is condensed. He became a Slave because he did not want to risk his life to be- come a Master. Wisdom at the End of History.
It is a matter of on-going contention whether or not Sartre personally attended the Hegel seminars of the s. Moreover, like Marx he believed that the expansion of capitalism was an homogenising force, producing a globalising readiing standard that laid waste to local attachments, traditions and readinv, replacing them with bourgeoisie values.
On the one hand, the Master is Master only because his Desire was directed not toward a thing, but toward another desire — thus, it was a desire for recognition.
Kojève, Alexandre | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy
In particular, it will be concerned with dif- ferentiating this absolute philosophical Knowledge from another Knowledge, which also claims to be absolute— the Knowledge implied in the Christian revelation and the theology that follows intoduction it. It was to become Master, to be Master that he risked his life, and not to live a life of pleasure.
The human ideal, born in the Master, can be realized and revealed, can become Wahrheit truthonly in and by Slavery. Since all the fulfillments-or-accom- plishments of its natural consciousness have not vacillated, that Consciousness still belongs — in itself — to determined given-being.
Alexandre Kojève (1902—1968)
Truth is the revelation of a reality. By refusing to risk 1 v ‘ his life in a fight for pure prestige, he does not rise above the level! In fear, Being-for-itself [already] exists in ehgel slavish Consciousness itself. As for the aspect of the thing’s autonomy, he leaves it to the Slave, who transforms the thing by work.
He char- acterizes the life of the man who is free, who has no work, who has no worlds to conquer, states to found, gods to revere, or truths to discover. Now, “to recognize” him thus is “to recognize” him as his Master and to recognize himself and to be recognized as the Master’s Slave.
To reach it, one must start from something other than contemplative knowledge of Being, other than its passive revelation, which leaves Being as it is in itself, independent of the knowledge that reveals it. What is other for it exists as an object without essential-reality, as an object marked with the character of a negative-entity. And it is only this Work 42 Summary of the First Six Chapters of the Phenomenology of Spirit that could finally produce the table on which Hegel wrote his Phenomenology and which was a part of the content of the I that he analyzed in answering his question, “What am I?
If idle Mastery is an impasse, laborious Slavery, in contrast, is the source of all human, social, historical progress. This sub- structure, which supports both Religion and Philosophy, is nothing but the totality of human Actions realized during the inntroduction of universal history, that History in and by which Man has created a series of specifically human Worlds, essentially different from the natural World.
History moves readkng a series of determinate configurations, culminating in the end of history, a state in which a common and universal humanity is finally realised.
From Sartre to Althusser. Hegelian anthropology is formed by this idea that Man is not a Being that is in an eternal identity to itself in Space, but a Nothingness that nihilates as Time in spatial Being, through the negation of this Being— through the negation or trans- formation of the given, hgeel from an idea or an ideal that does not yet exist, that is still nothingness a “project” — through nega- tion that is called the Action Tat of Fighting and of Work Kampf und Arbeit.
The Slave, also, considers him as such.
Introduction to the Reading of Hegel
The Irreducibility of Pedagogy to Information Transactions. Accordingly, the freedom that he creates in and by this act of negation does not depend on the particular forms of the given.
Now, the given World in which he lives belongs to the human or divine Master, and in this World he is neces- sarily Slave. Now, my freedom ceases to be a dream, an illusion, an abstract idea, only to the thw that it is universally recognized by those whom I recognize as worthy of recognizing it.
And he remains in fact this Slave. By accepting it, one can already foresee, or understand “deduce”what human existence will be. John Russon – – Research in Phenomenology 36 1: And, by using the thought that arises from his Work, he forms the abstract notion of the Freedom that has been realized in him by this same Work.
But in that activity of the other is also found the second aspect, namely, the activity by oneself: