EL ARTE COMO ARTIFICIO; Autor. Shklovski. INTEGRANTES: Antonieta Ontiveros Ruiz; Adriana López Núñez; Gabriela G. Agis Mendoza. Dra. Flor de María. 16; Louis Vax, Arte y literatura fantásticas (Buenos Aires: Eudeba, ), p. 6. 2. Victor Shklovski, “El arte como artificio” in Teoría de la literatura de los. Shklovski, Viktor (). El arte como artificio (). In Todorov, Tzvetan (Ed.), Teoría de la literatura de los formalistas rusos. Argentina: Siglo XXI, pp.

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In this way, it set up the contingent states of things that are only actual in our reality from the realm of the possible.

Así la vida desaparece transformándose en nada. La – Sistemas de representación de la realidad

In these types of games, there is a general story, but it does not develop until, after exploration, specific stories are activated. In other srte, the fictionality of narration does not belong to one medium, but rather is determined, as we have seen earlier, by different pragmatic-semantic criteria.

Recently, Marie-Laure Ryan has emphasized the paradoxical and convenient alliance between certain ludologists and classical narratologists in which a shkloveki based on the act of speech by the narrator is praised and thereby, the mimetic possibilities of film or drama are excluded.

Conversely, in coo configuration phase Mimesis II shkpovski, the fictional framework is governed mainly by logic based on intensional semantics, without damaging the role that the issue of extension may play in each specific fiction.

This acknowledgement of pre-existence and independence, along with the ideas of being and existence, is key for understanding the approaches of the two main representatives of possibilism: This relational model between game design, game play and play form the nucleus of the Theory of Ludofictional Worlds. The proto-democratic world of flourishing Athens was overtly contrary and opposed to the autocratic and strict Spartan world, while the world of science defended by Arrte could not coexist with the Theocentric framework of the hegemonic Renaissance Catholic Church.

If the ludofictional world enabled complete freedom, Sicart could have played without issues, but that did not happen.

viktor shklovski el arte como artificio pdf writer

Second, and in terms of the possible ambiguity of a fictional framework, the reference of a world allows the remarking ckmo boundaries between suklovski which belongs to that set and that which remains outside of it. Here fiction remains potentially unlimited or incomplete — following what Dolezel previously established — but not the ludic configuration in game rules.


First, mimesis understood as a literal imitation or copy, whose main model is observational replication and, where appropriate, observational learning. From this perspective, fictional worlds must be claimed as true and substantial cultural objects that transform contemporary society daily.

In its most primitive variation, deception occurs in the evolution of species — for example, the wing coloring of certain butterflies mimic the eyes of birds of prey, the natural predators of the birds that feed on them — or as a reaction to an environment — as in the case of chameleons and their ability to camouflage.

Thus, from the perspective of fictional semantics, it would be more appropriate to consider that fictional worlds are also sources of inspiration inserted into the real world and that they may circulate and expand from a transmedia logic. Thus, Todorovp.

Finally, we should add an interesting reflection regarding inter- world relations. And the only criteria to consider any of them actual is supported by the constant relative position of the subjects that populate this world — involving, accordingly, all the relatively actual worlds.

From the perspective of ludofictional worlds in video games, this happens in the same way, although with the specific features of the concept of game. The first is referred to as Evoked Narrative p. To answer this shkovski, Juul makes a comparative analysis between the movie Star Wars and the video game Atari made with the same name in From then on, games, essentially popular and located in humble neighborhood stores, could not relate to the luxury movie theater located on the great avenues of the metropolis.

However, intension considers any fictional entity, whether with a real or non-existent referent, as participating in an autonomous and ontologically distinct space from the real world: This statement, as such, is subject to the judgment of our world and the articulation of different possible and actual states.

And this is especially relevant for fantastical worlds, in which the referential contradiction is evident — orcs exist, which is contradictory shklovki our reality — but it is not incoherent. In other words, different stories entail different histories.


In the same way, the idea of worlds helps divide history into concrete periods — the world of Romanticism, the Greco-Roman world — or link different elements involving the same key player — the world of Mozart, the world of Chaplin.

In some cases, such Markku Eskelinenthe belligerence against Narratology and related fields is clear5: That is to say, if narration is a matter of degree and not of enunciation, then in its maximum degree — of fictional contexts — it is not possible to distinguish between fiction and narration: Thus, it is common to speak of video game designers before creators, or the techniques of game design Crawford, ; Salen and Zimermann, ; Schell, Finally, this ludofictional world will be summarized in three aspects: Finalidad, origen, originalidad p.

These types of objects are real, more or less concrete, but non-existent. First, something cannot be possible and impossible at the same time and, second, something cannot be neither possible nor impossible — that is, it must necessarily adhere to one of these two categories.

Thus, the cohesion and stability that governs the structure of the system of the possible avoids the idea that the video game is a world of freedom for the user: To this, a third time is added, also proposed by Genette: Thus, the physical interaction of the player, which Darley calls the vicarious kinesthetic, is the central element of all video games, notwithstanding that the narrative may appear as an accessary or auxiliary element.

Thus, these worlds are given their own intensional semantics that lets them have different types of characters, objects, spaces and temporality but that must necessarily be associated with the ludological influence of game rules. In this sense, our actual world, however it may be determined, is a necessary reference, a natural anchor for understanding how other possibilities are articulated.

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