Teorija CPP: cestnoprometni predpisi: C, E, D – kat.: (za interno uporabo). Front Cover. Bojan Krajnc. B. Krajnc, – 89 pages. Index of /~slmurko/Teorija in vaje/ROM/Interaktivni raèunalniški teèaji/computing/ cpp. [ICO], Name · Last modified · Size · Description. [DIR], Parent Directory, -. Parent Directory, -. [TXT], BARCHART.C, Feb , K. [TXT], , Feb , K. [ ], , Feb , K.
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Let’s compare the list with toerija data types, for example an integer. Some compilers even initialize newly created integers to a specific value, typically 0 zero.
Your interface definition file of your new list module looks like this:. Roughly speaking, each object implements its own module allowing for example many lists to coexist. Programs use data structures to store data. With procedural programming you are able to combine returning sequences of statements into one single place. The main program coordinates calls to procedures in separate modules and hands over appropriate data as parameters.
The main program is responsible to pass data to the individual calls, the data is processed by the procedures and, once the program has finished, the resulting data is presented. Structure of a singly linked list. You therefore create a new interface description which now includes a definition for a list handle. For example, if a procedure is correct, every time it is used it produces correct results.
In contrast to the other techniques, we now have a web of interacting objectseach house-keeping its own state Fig. The problem here with modular programming is, that you must explicitly create and destroy your list handles. For example, if the same statement sequence is needed at different locations within the program, the sequence must be copied. Object-oriented programming solves some of the problems just mentioned.
If you want to use a list within a procedure, say, foo you use the following code frame:. Each module can have its own data. What we have shown with the traversing strategy applies to other strategies as well.
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After processing flow of controls proceed where the call was made. Every other procedure now contains the special parameter this which just identifies the list in question. This implies a cp; strategy which defines the order in which the elements of the data structure are to be visited. Note the difference to the previous version where you just hide functions or procedures, respectively. The corresponding list routines should then automatically return the correct data types.
Once you’ve defined them, you can use them. In our list example we have to use the special type ANY to allow the list to carry any data we like. Thus, the flow of data can be illustrated as a hierarchical graph, a treeas shown in Fig. Then you use the procedures of the module to modify each of your handles. Now you have a list module which allows you to teorrija a list with any type of data elements. Reorija, it is exactly the other way around: The main program directly teoriaj on global data.
You decide to redesign your list module to be able to manage more than one list.
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Each object is responsible to initialize and destroy itself correctly. Typically a cursor is used for that purpose which points to the current teofija.
For example a queue can be structured like a teoruja linked list. Data specifies valid operations. This teoija necessary since you wish to use your list in several different environments, hence, the type of the data elements to be stored in the list is not known beforehand.
Now you might say, that you can create list objects. You then use these operations by providing explicitly the data to them on which they should operate. This has lead to the idea to extract these sequencesname them and offering a technique to call and return from these procedures. Therefore we would like to be able to define a list similar to the definition of an integer. Now modules group data representations together.
Singly linked lists just provides access methods to append a new element to their end and to delete the element at the front. The compiler should be able to check for type consistency. The calls to provided procedures remain the same. Within this chapter we will use a very simple pseudo code which you should understand immediately. However, more complex data structures such as trees can be traversed using different strategies.
Consider the following example which the compiler cannot check for correctness:. We will now teorjia an example which we use to present some design concepts.