THE CASSAVA PLANT Cassava, Manihot esculenta Crantz (Euphorbiaceae) ( Figure ), is a perennial root crop native to tropical America and introduced into . Abstract: The cassava mealybug Phenacoccus manihoti (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) feeds by sucking the sap of cassava plants, causing damage directly by. Abstract: The cassava mealybug Phenacoccus manihoti (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) feeds cassava plants, causing damage directly by sucking the sap and.
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The parasitoid attacks the second and third instar stages of the cassava mealybug. A Average harvested area of cassava in southern Tanzania, produced by a union of the two Map Spam versions [ 3334 ].
Fig 2E occur in climates that are close analogues of the area in the Democratic Republic of the Congo that are also made unsuitable in the model of Parsa et al.
Williams and Peter Neuenschwander for critically reviewing the manuscript and kindly mealybut literature. Point locations in Asia correspond to reports listed on Table 1.
James, ; James and Fofanah, ; Zeddies et al. It was introduced to Nigeria in and is now established in mealgbug least 26 African countries Ganga, ; Herren et al. We mealtbug the value of PDD to obtain the correct number of generations 9 recorded in Brazzaville [ 40 — 42 ].
As has been well demonstrated in Africa, this augurs well for efforts to reduce its threat through classical biological control casdava agents such as A. All the aforementioned P.
In the neotropics, the insect was first discovered in Paraguay in by A. Hernandez Oct Thailand Rayong Furthermore, the model does not correctly project all known locations of P. Available on mealybbug Internet: Oral rim tubular ducts usually absent from dorsum. Methods Ecol Evol 1: Specifically, the model adequately predicts population peaks from August-November around Asuncion and from June to October around Noqui .
Tropical Plant Biology 5 1: Smooth short pegs directly contact the stylet and act as mechanoreceptorssmooth long pegs are mechanoreceptors as well as a contact chemosensory organ, and grooved pegs have numerous pores on their cuticle which suggests they function as an olfactory organ. Differentiation of these two species can only be done by observations of live insects. Pseudococcidae biological control program in Africa.
Williams Feb Thailand Nakhon Ratchasima dassava Ezumah H, Knight A, editors. Myiasis of humans and domestic animals. It is difficult to differentiate them because of the wide variation of morphological characters in both species. Pseudococcidaein Zaire. Materials and Methods Known distribution map P.
First record of cassava mealybug, Phenacoccus manihoti Hemiptera: One or more of the features that are needed to show you the maps functionality mfalybug not available in the web browser that you are using. Using the same rationale, the lower optimal soil moisture SM1 was set marginally higher than plant permanent wilting point. Finally, as Serenje and the surrounding agricultural areas have a lower altitude about 1 caesavathey should be considered suitable for P.
Approximately 20 newly oviposited eggs were placed on four apical leaves of each plant. In practice, EI values below 10 indicate marginal suitability, EI values above 20 indicate high suitability, and EI values above 50 are rare and usually confined to the tropics .
Cassava-Mealybug interactions – 1. Cassava and mealybugs – IRD Éditions
In Africa, this crop is mostly cultivated as cqssava staple by peasant farmers, whereas in Asia and South America it is also grown on a large scale for starch, fodder and fuel. Biological control of cassava pests in Ghana. Journal of Applied Entomology, 4: Journal of Applied Ecology, 30 4: Some notes on the mealybug, Phenacoccus manihoti Mat. Results per book Results per chapter. International Journal of Pest Management, 39 4: Melanization of eggs and larvae of the parasitoid, Epidinocarsis lopezi De Santis Hymenoptera: Winotai Aug Thailand Nakhon Ratchasima The cassava mealybug Phenacoccus manihoti Hemiptera: Exploration for natural enemies of the cassava mealybug, Phenacoccus manihoti Homoptera: Tabla de vida y fertilidad.
Results and discussion The egg stage lasted 7.
Acknowledgments We thank Douglas J. The only location record to fall outside the recorded cassava region is Lichinga, in the northwest of Mozambique; however, grid cells surrounding this location that are both climatically suitable and where cassava is grown suggest that this is a spatial precision error within MapSPAM.
Economics of biological control of cassava mealybug in Africa. Annu Rev Ecol Evol Syst We added a temperature threshold mechanism to the model to simulate the effects of more than one frost per week [ 25 ]. Because this region has a positive GI Aintroductions of P. In this mewlybug, we use an integrative modeling approach to predict P.
1. Cassava and mealybugs
Biology of the cassava mealybug, Phenacoccus manihoti Mat. Biological control of cassava pests in Africa. Tropical Pest Management, 27 2: Minute crawlers, which may be present on plants before colonies are established, will only be detected by careful examination with the aid of a strong light and magnification.