Noma is an opportunistic infection promoted by extreme poverty. It evolves rapidly from a gingival inflammation to grotesque orofacial gangrene. Cancrum oris. Prevalence: Unknown; Inheritance: ; Age of onset: Childhood; ICD A; OMIM: ; UMLS: C; MeSH: D; GARD: Cancrum oris or noma (from the Greek nomein, “to devour”)1 is a “gangrenous affection of the mouth, especially attacking children in whom the constitution is.

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Its fulminating course causes progressive and mutilating destruction of the affected tissues. Etiology The aetiology remains unknown.

Trop Med Int Health. Indian J Plast Surg ; The documents contained in this web site are presented for information purposes only. Only comments written in English can be processed. Only comments seeking to improve the quality and accuracy of information on the Orphanet website are accepted.

Additional to production of a growth-stimulating factor for Pi, Fn displays a classic endotoxin, a dermonecrotic toxin, a cytoplasmic toxin, and a hemolysin.

Canxrum Textbook of Pediatrics. Noma, actinomycosis and nocardia. Sitemap What’s New Feedback Disclaimer. BV4 non- proteobacterial G- primarily A00—A79—, — This can eventually destroy the soft tissue and bone.

Oro-facial gangrene (noma/cancrum oris): pathogenetic mechanisms.

A devastating orofacial gangrene. Known in antiquity to such physicians as Hippocrates and Galennoma was once reported around the world, including Europe and the United States.

The versatility of pectoralis major and latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flaps in the reconstruction of cancrum oris defects of children and adolescents. Rare cases of noma have been described in adults with severe immunodeficiency individuals with AIDS or myelopathy, or those being treated with immunosuppressants in Africa and in the Western world.

The mucous membranes of the mouth develop ulcersand rapid, painless tissue degeneration ensues, which can degrade tissues of the bones in the face. Bacterial Infections Read more. Clinical description In addition to the severe facial destruction, children with noma often present with rhinolalia aperta, uncontrollable drooling, and socially handicapping halitosis.


Medical care is needed if mouth sores and inflammation occur and persist or get worse. A type of malnutrition called Kwashiorkorand other forms of severe protein malnutrition Poor sanitation and dirty living conditions Disorders such as measles or leukemia Living in a developing country. The disease was present in the Western world up until the start of the 20th century, but it now mainly affects children between 2 and 6 years of age living in the poorest regions of the world.

It is often reported as a sequela to acute necrotising ulcerative gingivitis. Chlamydia trachomatis Chlamydia Lymphogranuloma venereum Trachoma.

Oro-facial gangrene (noma/cancrum oris): pathogenetic mechanisms.

ofis J Maxillofac Surg ; Antibiotics are recommended to prevent the often lethal complications associated with infection and to help limit extension of the lesion. Noma is a type of gangrene that destroys mucous membranes of the mouth and other tissues.

J Pak Assoc Dermatol ; The destruction of the bones around the mouth causes deformity of the face and loss of teeth. Check this box if you wish to receive a copy of your message.

The disease develops very rapidly and in isolated regions medical care is often only sought after the lesions are well established. Management and treatment The management of acute noma is aimed at improving the health status introduction of a balanced diet and vitamin supplements, and sufficient hydration of affected individuals and providing topical care.

Noma (disease) – Wikipedia

Plastic surgery may be necessary to remove destroyed tissues and reconstruct facial bones. Health care resources for this disease Expert centres 22 Diagnostic tests 0 Patient organisations 0 Orphan drug s 0.

These ulcers have cahcrum foul-smelling drainage. Gangrene Bacterial diseases Health in Africa. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Cancrjm and Privacy Policy. Nasopalatine duct Median mandibular Median palatal Traumatic bone Osteoma Osteomyelitis Osteonecrosis Bisphosphonate-associated Cacnrum cavitational osteonecrosis Osteoradionecrosis Osteoporotic bone marrow defect Paget’s disease of bone Periapical abscess Phoenix abscess Periapical periodontitis Stafne defect Torus mandibularis.


Related articles Cancrum oris gangrenous stomatitis noma. The dehumanizing oro-facial gangrenous lesion affects predominantly children ages 2 to 16 years, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, where the estimated frequency in some communities varies from 1 to 7 cases per population. As most patients with noma do not report until the disease is at an advanced stage, its onset and progression still remains a mystery.

Palate Bednar’s aphthae Cleft palate High-arched palate Palatal cysts of the newborn Inflammatory papillary hyperplasia Stomatitis nicotina Torus palatinus. Often they have had an illness such as measles, scarlet fever, tuberculosis, or cancer. Orofacial soft tissues — Soft tissues around the mouth Actinomycosis Angioedema Basal cell carcinoma Cutaneous sinus of dental origin Cystic hygroma Gnathophyma Ludwig’s angina Macrostomia Melkersson—Rosenthal syndrome Microstomia Noma Oral Crohn’s disease Orofacial granulomatosis Perioral dermatitis Pyostomatitis vegetans.

How to cite this URL: Infectious diseases Bacterial diseases: Orofacial soft tissues — Soft tissues around the mouth. This will improve facial appearance and the function of the mouth and jaw. Teams of volunteer medics coming from abroad are often needed to support the local capacity to address the most severe cases, which can be extremely challenging even for senior maxillofacial surgeons.

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