Summary. A Causal Model of Organizational Performance and Change, or the Burke & Litwin Model, suggests linkages that hypothesize how performance is. Download scientific diagram | The Burke-Litwin Causal Model of Organizational Performance and Change from publication: Change Management Strategy in. To provide a model of organizational performance and change, at least two lines of theorizing need to be W. Warner Burke George H. Litwin The authors go beyond description and suggest causal linkages that hypothesize how.

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Once this has occurred, all affected elements can also be identified.

All the affecting factors put together affects the motivation level of the individuals in an organization, which in turn impacts the overall performance. The kind of relationships the employees share with their team members and members of other teams is also an important aspect of work unit climate.

For practical use it would be better to look at these key factors and questions and seek answers to them. The diagram demonstrates which elements belong in which group, how they interact with each other and the overall hierarchy of an organisation.

External environment Mission and strategy Leadership Organizational culture Structure Management practices Systems Work unit climate Task and individual skills Individual needs and values Motivation Individual and organizational performance The model also distinguishes between transformational and transactional organizational dynamics in organizations.

It provides a framework to assess organizational and environmental dimensions that are keys to successful change and it demonstrates how these dimensions should be linked causally to achieve a change in performance.


The 12 Dimensions Here is a brief description of each of the 12 dimensions identified by the Burke-Litwin change model. A study of the leadership structure of the organizationshould be carried out, which clearly identifies the chief role models in the organization.

The two main uses of the model are to either diagnose a problem within the organisation or create an action plan often for a change initiative. This would also involve identifying motivational triggers.

It is the external environment that makes an organization to change its mission, culture, leadership and its operating strategies. The changes in the 12 key dimensions, as identified by the Burke and Litwin model, bring about a series of changes in the structure, practices and the system of the organization.

The model also demonstrates the hierarchy of factors within an organisation and hence the flow of influence from one factor to the next. Mission and Strategy — This factor describes the purpose of the organisation and also the processes for how it will be achieved.

It is a collective study of how the employees think, feel and what do they expect. An example would be a change in legal working requirements external environment.

Using the Burke-Litwin Change Model to Manage Organizational Change

An organizational culture study should seek information on the explicit as well as the implied rules, regulations, customs, principles and values that influence the organizational behavior. Transformational factors purple blocks are deeply embedded processes and characteristics of the organisation.

For example, how well burkelitwin members cooperate, how comfortable individuals feel expressing themselves or how well goals are set and rewarded.

Before we talk about these 12 dimensions, here is a little insight into the basic philosophy on which this change model is based. The authors argue these factors are strongly affected by management, rather than leadership. The most dominant factor that triggers organizational change is the external environment. This may be legal systems or reward systems, for example.


Change in these factors is only likely to lead to lasting change if, in turn, the transformational factors are also affected. Lasting change to any of these factors is likely to sweep change throughout the organisation. Here is a brief description of each of the 12 dimensions identified by the Burke-Litwin change model. Through motivation and individual needs and values, we would then see a change to individual and organisational performance.

A Causal Model of Organizational Performance & Change (Burke & Litwin Model) | Reflect & Learn

This website is a joint collaboration between:. No 3 p The Performance and Change Model Analyse model. Each group then contains various elements of the organisation.

And understanding the linkage between these supportive pillars is the key to effective and smoother change. Motivation — The setting of goals to inspire and direct employees.

Change Management

The key external factors that have an impact on the organization must be identified and their direct and indirect impact on the organization should be clearly established. Management Practices — Behaviours and activities mldel managers, usually aligned to carrying out the overall strategy.

Individual and Organisational Performance — This factor is the overall output of the organisation.

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