BAUMGARTEN’S AESTHETICA. MARY J. GREGOR. Although the content of Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten’s. Aesthetica1 seems to be familiar in German. L’estetica (Aesthetica) [Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten] on *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Book by Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten. Aesthetica. by Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten. Publication date Usage Public Domain Mark Topics bub_upload. Publisher Kleyb.

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He accepted Wolff’s explanation that pleasure arises in the sensible perception of perfection, but also Baumgarten’s transformation of that formula into the explanation of beauty as the perfection of sensible cognition: Whatever the limitations of Baumgarten’s theory of aesthetics, Frederick Copleston credits him with playing a formative role in German aesthetics, extending Christian Wolff ‘s philosophy to topics that Wolff did not consider, and demonstrating the existence of a legitimate topic for philosophical analysis that could not be reduced to abstract logical analysis.

This position, which Herder occupied for the rest of his life, gave him ample time to write and put him into contact with the many other leading figures of late eighteenth-century German literary and intellectual life whom Goethe brought to Weimar.

Georg Friedrich Meier —who had been studying with Baumgarten, took over his classes and was himself appointed aeathetica at Halle in You need to take a critical look at the dates in your first paragraph: Jean Gimpel, in Against Art and Artists, discusses the development of aesthetics by Baumgarten, and of course, does not see it positively.

The next axis of perfection that Mendelssohn considers is the state of our mind in response to perfection or imperfection in baumgaften real or represented object.

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These essays did not concern painting at all or even general issues about the arts very much—the name merely reflects their use of the names of famous painters as pseudonymous signatures for their articles—although one of Bodmer’s articles on Opitz celebrated the imagination as the key to poetic success: Sulzer’s more conventional view that the fine arts serve morality by enlivening our moral feelings explains his recognition of the value of the ugly as well as the beautiful in art: ArtLark Post author May 27, He thus allows for no conception of perfection without a concept of purpose.

Mendelssohn explicitly recognizes the physical skills as well as the mental powers of the artist as among the perfections that we indirectly admire in admiring the work of art; this is another example of his recognition of the close connection between mind and body in spite of their metaphysical distinction.

Hence every representation, at least in relation to the subject, as an affirmative predicate of the thinking entity, must have something about it that we like. In that way, aesthetic experience is of direct moral value.


But even before he reaches that conclusion, aetshetica theory of beauty makes the nature and aims of art more complex than they might initially seem. He explains in the preface to the second edition of the Metaphysics that he.

18th Century German Aesthetics

If the objects gets too close to us, if we regard it as a part of us or even as ourselves, the pleasant character of the representation completely disappears, and the relation to the subject immediately becomes an unpleasant relation to us since here subject and object aesthefica, as it were, into one another.

Nonetheless, we would not thereby have achieved everything and certainly not what is most fundamental, simple, and primary…. The latter suggestion is misleading because Herder does more than almost anyone else in eighteenth-century Germany to minimize any separation between mind and body.

Throughout the remainder of the treatise, both conceptions of perfection are at work. Rhapsody ; Philosophical Writingspp. However, although human artistry may concentrate beauty more than nature does, that hardly means that artistic beauty is in all regards superior to natural beauty.

JF May 26, Meier analyzes the passions, in spite of their name the German term Leidenschaftlike the Latin passioetymologically means something that happens to someone rather than something that one does, an actioas a form of mental activity: Wikimedia Commons has media related to Aesghetica Gottlieb Baumgarten.

In so doing, he gave the word a different significance, thereby inventing its modern usage. The scream had to be softened to a sigh, not because screaming betrays an ignoble soul, but because it distorts the features in a disgusting manner.

What we cognize as the best in this comparison works on our faculty of desire and stimulates it, where it finds no resistance, to activity. Before that was to happen, however, the ideas, emphasized more by Meier although already suggested by Baumgarten, that art aims at arousing our emotions and at the pleasurable activity of the mind, and at the former as an instance of the latter, would be further developed by an intervening generation of German thinkers.

Herder is thus no straightforward historicist or cultural relativist. Amazon Music Stream millions of songs. Since affects are more notable degrees of pain and pleasure, their sensible representations are given in representing something to oneself confusedly as good or bad, and thus they determine poetic representations, and to arouse affects is poetic.

After finishing SculptureBxumgarten published a collection of folk poetry from around the world, Popular Songs —79a work on the Old Testament, On the Spirit of Hebrew Poetry —83the large work on philosophy of history already mentioned, an influential defense of Spinoza under the name of God: Thus Mendelssohn writes, first with bahmgarten to the power of cognition but then with reference to desire as well, that.

As always, thanks for the erratum, boblitton! So Gottsched may never have met Wolff.


This view of the power of art is what Herder finds missing in Riedel and perhaps even in Lessing himself. Sulzer also develops a complex theory of the value of fine art. This page was last edited on 16 Decemberat Winckelmann then attributes the excellent of ancient, that is to say Greek, art to three factors: Max Bense – – Agis-Verlag. Johann Joachim Winckelmann —the son of a cobbler from Prussia, studied at Halle and Jena, and became a school teacher.

All of these lower faculties of cognition, in so far as they represent the connections among things, and in this respect are similar to reason, comprise that which is similar to reason analogon rationisor the sum of all the cognitive faculties that represent the connections among things indistinctly.

Edit this record Mark as duplicate Export citation Find it on Scholar Request removal from index Translate to english Revision history. This line of thought was emphasized by Jean-Baptiste Du Bos in his Critical Reflections on Poetry, Painting, and Musicpublished in France in and widely known throughout Europe even before it was translated into other languages.

18th Century German Aesthetics (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

I cognize the interconnection of some things distinctly, and of others indistinctly, consequently I have the faculty for both.

By this time, however, he was caught up in a strenuous controversy with the fideist philosopher Friedrich Heinrich Jacobi over whether his lifelong friend Lessing had been a Spinozist.

He uses the examples of painting and architecture in the German metaphysics to illustrate his claim that pleasure arises from the intuition of perfection. When we turn to Wolff’s conceptions of the perfections of the particular forms of art that he mentions, we will see that he always has in mind both formal and substantive perfections for any particular art.

But his basic point remains: His whole dramatic illusion is attained by means of this authenticity, truth, and historical creativity. But the latter is as much a part of his thought as the former. It is all the more worthy the more that the perfection of rational beings is elevated above the perfection of lifeless things, and also more complex because many abilities of the soul and often diverse skills of the external limbs as well are required for a beautiful imitation.

He makes the general claim that freedom is conducive to the development of art:. He is however distinguished from these by the manner of his imitation and the means through which he achieves it.

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