The assessment of language learners is having a growing impact in English language teaching and applied linguistics. A formal evaluation of students writing . “Writing is a key skill in second language learning and all teachers need to evaluate their students’ writing abilities. The issues surrounding the assessment of. Sara Cushing Weigle – Assessing – Ebook download as PDF File .pdf ), Text File .txt) or read book online.
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Second-language writing In this section, issues specific to second-language writing are dis- cussed. For example, let us consider three types of inferences that we can make on the basis of a language test: Non-literal and metaphoric language D.
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Thus, a writer must devote a considerable amount of cognitive energy simultaneously managing several dif- ferent kinds of information: Third, while writing tests are frequently scored by raters who are unknown to the examinees and vice versathe audience for most academic writing is the students’ instructor.
Behzad added it Jun 16, Like the second group, this third group is generally well educated; unlike the second group, however, they may not have as great a need to write in their second language, and Introduction 7 certainly the writing that they will do is less complex and demanding than that of the second group.
The final three chapters deal with topics in writing assessment that go beyond the traditional timed impromptu writing test. While a full treatment of this issue is beyond the scope of this volume, in coming up with a definition of writing that can be useful for assessment it may be worthwhile spending some time considering the relationship between writing and the two skills most closely related to it: The social environment consists of the audience real or imagined for one’s writing, as well as any collaborators in the writing process.
Joko Sasongko rated it it was amazing Jun 08, Hayes Hayes’ model of writing sees the writing process as consisting of two main parts: Inferences about achievement are also used on a program-wide or even state or national levels to make decisions about curriculum and funding for programs.
Knowledge of the audience includes consideration of many of the social and cultural issues dis- cussed above. Alexa Actionable Analytics for the Web. As we shall see later on wrigle this book, this variety has important implications for the testing of writing, both in terms of designing appropriate writing tasks and in terms of evaluating writing.
They provide each other with a continual source of cues – cues to proceed, cues to stop, cues to elaborate, cues to shift topic, and a great variety of cues that stir memory. In this sense, broader characteristics – weigel as what gets said and what remains implicit, what is foregrounded and what is backgrounded, and what is stated by whom and under what circumstances – implicate the norms sasessing expecta- tions wrjting the range of contexts in which both writing and speaking are produced.
A model for reading to evaluate is found in Figure 2. Furthermore, changes in the instructional practices of individual teachers may be mediated by such influences as the teacher’s personal beliefs, institutional requirements, prevailing Basic considerations in assessing writing 55 social, political, and economic issues Wall,along with student expectations and the availability of appropriate cudhing mate- rials Alderson and Hamp-Lyons, It should be noted that much of what is considered language knowl- edge in this model is contained in the Hayes model under ‘task schemas’ and ‘genre knowledge,’ although clearly not in as much detail.
Test of English as a Foreign Language First, various test purposes are de- scribed. How should they be tested? However, as we shall see, designing a good test of writing involves much more than simply thinking of a topic for test takers to write about and then using our own judgement to rank order the resulting writing samples.
Strategic competence is defined by Bachman and Palmer as ‘a set of metacognitive components, or strategies, which can be thought of as higher order executive processes that provide a cognitive manage- ment function in language use, as well as in other cognitive activities’ Atlanta, September CHAPTER ONE Introduction The ability to wara effectively is becoming increasingly important in our global community, and instruction in writing is thus assuming an increasing role in both second- and foreign-language education.
AmazonGlobal Ship Orders Internationally. This is a bible for writing assessment.
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Furthermore, current instructional practices, at least in the US, em- phasize collaborative writing, peer response, and other forms of inter- action to mitigate many of the challenges of writing discussed above Sperling, Along the horizontal axis, three fundamental levels of cogni- tive processing can be distinguished.
Bereiter and Scardamalia supply a quote from a year-old that assesisng this process quite aptly: Models of the writing process In attempting to capture the differences between expert and novice writers and to describe the various influences on the writing process, a number of researchers have proposed models of the writing process. In a similar vein, Sperling Bereiter and Scardamalia stress the importance of the interactive elements in conversation that are absent in writing: What do people write, and under what circumstances?
As Hayes points out, readers form a representation, not just of the text itself, but of the writer’s persona as well; thus, it is a short step from perceiving a text as incoherent to perceiving welgle writer as somehow being deficient stupid, illogical, etc.
Cambridge Language Assessment Paperback: Knowledge of inferencing bridging, elaborating H. The writing process ends when the memory probes fail to find additional appropriate content. Neverthe- less, we need to think about these components when we are designing tests so that we can specify as explicitly as possible the role that they play in the successful completion of the test tasks.
Inferences about achievement – or the degree to which individuals or groups of students have met specific instructional goals – are used to make decisions about grading and promotion on the individual level, and about modification of instruc- tion on the classroom level.
Given that the text written so far is an important source of input to the writer, it becomes clear that the writer is assessnig a further disadvantage if the text so far is incomplete or inaccurate and cannot provide the appropriate memory cues to the writer.
For example, Arabic prose is frequently said to use more coordination and parallelism, unlike the subordination and hierarch- ical xushing preferred by writers of English Ostler, ; Yorkey, ; Kaplan, ; all cited in Leki,