In , people were employed in pharmaceutical-producing companies . in the Pharmaceutical Price Ordinance ( Arzneimittelpreisverordnung). Seit sinkt die Zahl der Apotheken in Deutschland. Filialstruktur 05 . in der Arzneimittelpreisverordnung leicht angepasst. Index ( = ). wird in Deutschland durch die Arzneimittelpreisverordnung reguliert. and debt crisis, in particular in the second half of and
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The private health insurer provides the insuree with cash benefits, in the form of reimbursements for medical treatment expenses. Thus, overall, the healthcare system is organized around the principle of solidarity Solidarprinzipwhich provides that every member of a supportive society is entitled to assistance from the other members of the society in the case of illness.
Its decisions are binding for arzneimittelpreisverordnungg the health insurance companies and SHI service providers. The 17 state pharmacy associations are statutory corporations that represent professional policy interests, support the state authorities in the monitoring of medicine safety and quality and together comprise the federal pharmacy association. If approved to do so by the association of SHI physicians, the Atzneimittelpreisverordnung physician may employ assistant arzneimittelpreisverordnunh in training or another physician in the same field of expertise.
Received Oct 19; Accepted Nov Number of statutory and private health insurance funds and insurees in Germany [ 1 ]. Only after this time can other manufacturers distribute the medicine as generic product.
Pharmacies are divided into public i. Federal grants for health infrastructure are also paid into this fund. As part arzneimittelprrisverordnung the health risk portfolio process, the applicant has to release physicians and any other involved healthcare workers from their non-disclosure agreements.
The German healthcare system
The SHI physician must be a member of the relevant association of SHI physicians, and qrzneimittelpreisverordnung such, must adhere to certain guidelines. In joint self-administration with the state associations of the SHI and the private health insurers, they reach framework decisions for the negotiation of overall budgets arzneimittelpreisvreordnung the daily rate for patient care, as well as for hospital planning.
Furthermore, the Medical Review Board of the Statutory Health Insurance Funds Medizinischer Dienst der Krankenversicherung, MDKan institution of the health and nursing insurance companies, also conducts external quality monitoring, whereby homes can be visited by appointment, care facilities without appointment, documents can be viewed, and persons requiring care, family members and staff can be questioned.
Arznei,ittelpreisverordnung integrated in and administrated by the health insurance companies, the funds of the nursing and health insurance companies are managed in strict separation.
In this scheme, the insuree, not the insurance company, is the contractual partner of the individual health service providers. The nursing insurance system employs a system of general revenue and cost sharing, which is implemented by the German Federal Social Insurance Office. This inpatient treatment is remunerated from the overall compensation package for outpatient medical treatment, arzneiimttelpreisverordnung the hospital expenses are charged to the patient or health insurance company in a separate billing procedure.
Healthcare services are provided by both public 209. The hospital funding law Krankenhausfinanzierungsgesetz, KHG defines hospitals as institutions for the diagnosis, curing or alleviation of diseases, ailments or physical injury and the performance arzneimittelpreisverordhung obstetrics by physician or nurses, in which the patients can be provided with room and board.
Under German law, medicine is defined as materials and preparations of materials intended to cure, alleviate, prevent or diagnose diseases, ailments, physical injury or other physical complaints when applied to or in the human or animal body. In larger clinic networks, a board of directors generally manages the enterprise as a whole. Together the two types of insurance form the nursing insurance system, whose common institutions are the nursing insurance companies.
The German healthcare system
If the review board determines that the applicant indeed requires nursing, the expert evaluator makes recommendations as to the level of nursing required, as well as the type and extent of measures necessary to reverse, lessen the need for nursing care or prevent the need from becoming greater. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Hospitals not in the hospital plan have to individually negotiate a service provision contract with the state associations of statutory health insurers in order to be authorized to treat SHI insurees SHI-approved hospitals.
Here, the nursing care insurers determine their monthly turnover, including operating costs and reserve funds and transfer any excess funds in full to a revenue sharing fund set up by the insurance office. Narcotics are subject to the narcotics law and may only be distributed under special rules and documentation. As domestic environments, aged homes are not considered to be inpatient nursing facilities.
While hospital physicians usually carry out the hospital treatment, general practitioners, if SHI-approved and with special authorization from the association of SHI physicians, can also treat patients on an inpatient basis—a provision that is limited to hospitals or hospital capacity also authorized for this purpose. In paying this amount, the service guarantee contract Sicherstellungsauftrag can hereby also be understood to have passed from the health insurers to the association of SHI physicians.
Health premium increases are not only permitted, but also in fact prescribed by law, if expenses increase and can no longer be met by the SHI scheme.
This coverage is not permitted to cost more than the highest SHI premium and must be guaranteed by the private health insurance companies without individual risk assessment contractual obligation. Women Men 1 Live births according to place of birthMental and behavioral disorders due to alcohol2 Heart failureLive births according to place of birth3 Malignant neoplasm of the breast [mammary]Angina pectoris4 CholelithiasisHeart failure5 Essential primary hypertensionHernia inguinalis6 Gonarthrosis [knee osteoarthritis]Chronic ischemic heart disease7 StrokeAcute myocardial infarction8 Femur fractureMalignant neoplasm of lung and bronchus9 Perineal tear during birthCerebral injury10 Atrial flutter and fibrillationAtrial flutter and fibrillationFurthermore, all parties, including the insured, the various associations and the funding bodies, are entitled to legally appeal the decisions reached by the associations and government authorities as part of the service guarantee contract.
Specifically, the state is obligated according to the Basic Law to provide its citizens with the minimum provisions for a human life with dignity, including adequate medical care that meets the needs of the population principle of meeting need, Bedarfsdeckungsprinzipin terms of ambulatory services, inpatient beds, quantitative and qualitative measures, and the dispensing of medical products.
These organizations all report to the Federal Ministry of Health, which drafts laws, regulations and administrative provisions, and is responsible for supervising subordinate federal agencies and appointing an expert commission to evaluate the development of public health.