Materiały na Seminarium Instytutu Spawalnictwa, Gliwice, Ambroziak A, Koralewicz Z, Korzeniowski M, Kustroń P. Kontrola jakości. Jakpol Ambroziak, Pułtusk, Poland. 34 likes · 2 were here. Prodkujemy : mąkę żytnia typ – mąkę żytnia typ – mąkę żytnia typ “sitkowa”. anych, Przegląd Spawalnictwa, No. 5–7, , pp. 51–  Ambroziak A., Korzeniowski M., Kustron P.: Quality control of spot welds – the chal- lenge for.
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To receive news and publication updates for Advances in Materials Science and Engineering, enter your email address in the box below. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution Licensewhich permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The paper presents our actual knowledge and experience in joining dissimilar materials with the use of friction welding method.
The joints of aluminium and aluminium alloys with the different types of steel were studied.
The structural effects occurring during the welding process were described. The mechanical properties using, for example, i microhardness measurements, ii tensile tests, iii bending tests, and iv shearing tests were determined. In order to obtain high-quality joints the influence of different configurations of the process such as i changing the geometry of bonding surface, ii using the interlayer, or iii heat treatment was analyzed.
Finally, the issues related to the selection of optimal parameters of friction welding process were also investigated. The family of friction welding processes includes several methods, such as rotary friction welding RFWlinear friction welding LFWand the newest one, friction stir welding FSW.
Welding processes are classified as solid-state joining methods because the melting of joined materials does not occur these processes [ 1 — 3 ]. A big attractiveness of these joining methods results from many technical and economic advantages, such as high efficiency and stability of the process or better conditions of occupational safety and health than in the case of traditional welding technologies.
However, recently, the most important seems to be the possibility of joining materials with different properties. Due to the fact that in the fusion zone between the two different materials the intermetallic compounds are formed and the joining process of dissimilar materials is often very difficult.
To obtain high-quality joint it is necessary to know and analyze phase diagram of the two welded materials. Furthermore, the microstructure and different properties of intermetallic phases, such as crack sensitivity, ductility, and corrosion resistance, are also very important.
There are some additional factors, for example, coefficients of thermal expansion of welded materials and their melting temperatures, the knowledge of which is also necessary in the case of joining dissimilar materials [ 3 — 6 ].
The presented review summarizes our actual knowledge about the friction welding of aluminium and aluminium alloys with different types of steel. Joining with the welding methods of the pairs of materials, such as aluminium alloys-steel, still brings many problems.
Even the analysis of the aluminium-iron dual system leads to the conclusion that sufficiently long time and high temperatures of the process can cause the formation of intermetallic phases and can be the reason for brittleness of joints Figure 1.
In the case of welding steel to aluminium, the excessively fragile intermetallic compounds lead to the joint degradation. In the Al-Fe equilibrium system, there is no solubility in a solid phase. Therefore, when using the friction welding the intermetallic phases are formed, despite joining in the solid state.
The main component of intermetallic phases, which were created at the border of the steel-aluminium joint, is an Al 3 Fe [ 7 ]. Seli and coauthors [ 10 ] have tried to model the heat distribution during the friction welding of aluminium and structural steel and connect it with the formation of intermetallic phases.
The intermetallic phases had width of 3. Jessop has observed that the highest thickness of the intermetallic phases was present on the surface, in the distance of about half radius from the axis of the sample.
The researches on the shear energy of the joints have determined its dependence on the thickness of the intermetallic phases. Therefore, when the thickness of the intermetallic phases was 0.
When the thickness was lower than 0. The author stated that lack of the intermetallic phases probably indicated the unstable joining process, and too high thickness of the fragile intermetallic phases caused the reduction of the shear energy value. Elliott and Wallach [ 16 ] and authors of the elaboration [ 717 ] have come to similar conclusions. For testing, they have used nonalloy carbon steel with a five times higher tensile strength than the tensile strength of aluminium.
They have used three different rotational speeds: The researchers concluded that for a good joint, an intermetallic layer, which was generally in the half radius length, with the thickness of 0. On the edges, this layer has occurred in minor amounts, while in the middle of the joint it did not occur at all, which was related to the lowest rotational speed in this area. The width of the heat affected zone was very small, compared to welding of other materials.
Simultaneously, the entire deformation has occurred at the aluminium side Figure 3 b. To prevent the formation of intermetallic phases, shorter friction time 0. However, they have resulted in significant length reduction of the welded elements The results, discussed in the previous chapter, showed that joining of pure aluminium and steel, by friction welding, was possible.
In the technique, especially in marine, aviation, and refrigeration industries, the joints of aluminium alloys and chromium-nickel austenitic steel are applicable. The aluminium alloys with magnesium, especially the AlMg3 alloy, are commonly used in industries, where the higher strength properties comparing to aluminium are necessary. The alloying additions, which are present in aluminium alloys especially magnesiumusually aggravate the metallurgical conditions of aluminium bonding [ 19 ].
Compared to aluminium, magnesium is characterized by a higher diffusion coefficient and has significantly lower solubility in iron.
For these reasons, on the welding surface of aluminium alloys that include magnesium, the intensive heterodiffusion and reaction-diffusion processes take place and cause the formation of the intermetallic phases. In the elaboration [ 21 ] it was stated that the Fe 2 Al 5 phase leached while bonding the A aluminium alloy with AISI stainless steel, during the friction welding process, at the contact surface.
However, at the surface of bonding pure aluminium and carbon steel, the compounds of Fe 4 Al 13 and Fe 2 Al 5 [ 922 ] have been observed. In the dissertation [ 25 ], the weldability of various aluminium alloys series, and i and S25C unalloyed carbon steel 0. For this purpose different process parameters have been used: An identification of phases, which had been formed on the contact surface of the materials, has been carried out, and the quality of joints has been evaluated on the base of the static tensile test.
It has been stated that the joint was characterized by efficient tensile strength, if the width of the diffusion zone with intermetallic phases was 0. Extensive researches on the friction welding of the A T6 aluminium alloy with six types of steel, for example, unalloyed steel, toughening steel, and austenitic steel, have been presented by Ochi et al. The quality of the joints has been evaluated on the base of static tensile test and microhardness measurements.
The ductility may be evaluated using the technological bending test. The issue of plastic properties of friction welded joints of austenitic steel and aluminium alloys, illustrated with an example of AlMgSi0. The friction welded AlMgSi0. However, their values have been lower, probably due to the lower pressure used during the upsetting phase Table 1.
Until now, it has not been possible to obtain any welded joints of chromium-nickel austenitic steel with AlMg3 aluminium alloy, with sufficient plastic properties for direct joining. The author has been conducting some intensive researches on the friction welding of such joints, partly presented in [ 13 ].
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering
However, in the technological bending tests, bending angles within few degrees have been achieved, with a small dependence on the diameter of the bending mandrel. Despite the short time of the welding process and the high pressure during the upsetting sample no. The technological bending test of such joint has ended with an immediate crack which has passed the intermetallic layers Figure 7 b.
Figure 9 presents the microstructure of the bonding zone of the friction welded AlMg3 aluminium alloy-X10CrNiTi austenitic steel joint, together with a microhardness measurement. There was a visible flow disruption of AlMg3 material alloy, as a result of macroroughness Figure 11 a.
Their forming has influenced the various forms of the flash but has not caused an elimination of the intermetallic phases, on the surface of the materials being bonded Figure To investigate the influence of the parameters of the friction welding process on the shearing work some researches have been conducted [ 26 ].
The joints, analysed in the researches, have been formed with friction times of 1. Due to that, various thicknesses of the layers with intermetallic phases have been obtained, as it can be seen in Figure The top surface of the steel samples has been formed with accurate sample no.
While for joints, which have been friction welded with low friction time, there was a continuous narrow diffusion zone with a diameter of few micrometers Figure 13 a ; the joints formed at longer friction time were characterized by local thickening of the diffusion layer and discontinuities on the aluminium side Figures 13 b and 13 c.
The results of the maximum loading force, obtained in the shearing test for the investigated joints, are shown in Figure 14whereas, in Figure 15the results of shearing work, calculated for two variants of shearing patterns, andare shown.
Biuletyn Instytutu Spawalnictwa 5/ | Institute of Welding Bulletin
The samples after the shearing test are presented in Figure Their formation has depended on the diffusion processes that were accelerated by magnesium and their thickness has depended on the welding parameters especially on the friction time.
The joints, analysed in the researches, have been formed with two different friction time parameters, so various thicknesses of the layers with intermetallic phases have occurred. So, for joints that have been friction welded with low friction time, there was a continuous narrow diffusion zone with a diameter of few micrometers Figure 13 a and the joints formed at longer friction time were characterized by local thickening of the diffusion layer and discontinuities on the aluminium side Figures spawalnuctwo b and 13 c.
Wherein, the highest values average of Therefore, the measurements of the shearing work, carried out for various ambrozjak of the test, have shown that there were huge shearing work differences for the analysed joints, and they have depended on the process parameters. If the period to the highest shearing force value apawalnictwo analysed, then the shearing work was, respectively, for the welding parameters J; J; and J Figure Comparing the shearing work and the calculated surface area of the aluminium deposition on steel after the shearing test has allowed to observe the dependence for increasing the shearing, together with increasing the surface covered with aluminium Figure For this reason, the friction welded AlMg3 aluminium alloy-X10CrNiTi austenitic steel joint can successfully replace the joints formed with diffusion welding.
The technological bending test has caused a strong deformation in the pure aluminium interlayer Figures 19 b and 19 c.
Another material, which has been tested as ambroaiak interlayer for the joints of AlMg3 alloy-X10CrNiTi steel, was titanium. As it was presented in chapter 2. Since the earlier literature data said that it is not possible to sppawalnictwo the joints of titanium-steel, without a amhroziak of brittle intermetallic phases [ 2731 ], it has been decided to combine AlMg3 alloy with X10CrNiTi steel and apply a second interlayer, that is, the layer between the steel and the titanium Figure For the material of this layer the pure Al The technological bending test has proved the strong deformation ajbroziak the aluminium layer.
Such behaviour may be caused that despite forming the intermetallic phases on the bound of AlMg3 alloy-X10CrNiTi steel, the low thickness of the whole additional interlayer allowed stress transfer occurring in the joint during bending. The deformation was observed behind the titanium layer on the Spawalnicto side Figure 20 c.
Thus, using the titanium and AlMg3 interlayer in the AlMg3 alloy-X10CrNiTi austenitic steel joints has enabled to achieve a joint characterized by high strength and relatively high bending angle. Using of such high diameters of the samples has been determined by the desire to achieve the most accurate approximation of the research for their utilitarian purpose. Such joint was supposed to replace the previous xmbroziak bonding of ambroziam shaft and rotor, produced from these materials and used in some types of turbo boost in large turbo diesel engines.
The surfaces of the samples for friction welding have been prepared with spawalbictwo and washed in ethyl alcohol, directly before welding.
Friction Welding of Aluminium and Aluminium Alloys with Steel
The samples of aluminium alloy have been additionally etched and then washed in ethyl alcohol again. In the first stage of the researches on the ANsteel 42CrMo4 joints, the researchers have decided to perform the friction welding on the joints, using the parameters presented in Table 1 sample no.
There have been attempts of increasing the diffusion interaction on the surface spaqalnictwo the ANCrMo4 steel joint, by additional annealing of the joint in the diffusion welder. An occurrence of spqwalnictwo narrow diffusion layer at the joining bound has been stated too. Further attempts have been taken to obtain better properties of the 42CrMo4 steel-AN40 aluminium alloy joint, by using some interlayers, formed with friction welding too.
The analysis, of the dual systems from aluminium, has allowed the assumption that none of metals have not formed concentration of the solid solution without intermetallic phases in ambeoziak whole range. On the base of the previous researches on the diffusion welding process [ 2930 ], the nickel has been selected.