that, unlike conventional stereo, binocular Helmholtz stere- opsis is able to establish .. A Bayesian approach to binocular stereopsis. Int. Journal of Computer. approach, each possible solution of the correspondence problem is assigned a A Bayesian model of stereopsis depth and motion direction discrimination .. The firing rate of the binocular cell is the half-wave rectified sum of its inputs. A Bayesian Approach to the Stereo Correspondence Problem. Jenny C. A. Read scene, S, given an image I. In the context of stereopsis, S represents the location of . to, given the observed firing rates of the binocular complex cell itself and.
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Depth ambiguity and constraint line under occlusion conditions. A physiological model for motion-stereo integration and a unified explanation of Pulfrich-like phenomena.
The direction of retinal motion facilitates binocular stereopsis.
This model echoes earlier suggestions that rivalry is the default outcome when binocular matching fails e. The mechanisms operating prior to binocular combination include suppression that is non-selective or very broadly tuned for orientation along the lines of cross-orientation suppression identified physiologically, e.
While more remains to be learned, it is clear that disparity information is represented differentially in the two major visual processing streams.
Inserting c L and c R in 10 determines the intersection of constraints or constraint line p. Affine structure from motion. Gradient constraint methods belong to the most widely used techniques of optic-flow computation from image sequences.
In recent refinements of this 2-stage model, its authors have distinguished two mechanisms within each monocular gain control component, one mechanism that exerts a suppressive influence on contrast signals within the contralateral eye and a second mechanism that exerts suppression on its own eye’s contrast signals. We know this, for example, from measurements of increment thresholds measured relative to a 3D tilted plane Glennerster et al.
This process is iterated on progressively finer spatial scales until an optimal disparity estimate is generated at the finest scale. The shortest distance in 3-D velocity space between the starting point of the stimulus line and the constraint line is the line or vector normal through point. The CA strategy is a generalized version of the vector average strategy for 2D motion  and can be linked to computational models of 3D motion that use global gradient and smoothness constraints .
Open in a separate window. Measuring azimuth and elevation of binocular 3D motion direction [Abstract]. On the coexistence of stereopsis and binocular rivalry.
A Bayesian approach to binocular steropsis
Robust and optimal use of information in batesian vision. Philosophical Works; Including the Works on Vision. Oxford University Press; The model makes the counterintuitive prediction that addition of noise to one eye’s view should increase the relative effectiveness of that eye’s grating through that channel’s TCEa prediction that was indeed confirmed.
In the following we exclude observer movements and only consider passively observed motion.
Figure in binocu,ar panel reproduced with permission from Logothetis, Leopold and Sheinberg, Nawrot and Blake proposed a model for this phenomenon in which there was disparity specific inhibition between dots moving in opposite directions.
Differential geometric inference in surface stereo. The time course of binocular rivalry reveals a fundamental role of noise. If an oriented stimulus diagonal line moves from the fixation point to a new position in depth along a known trajectory black arrow then perspective projection of the line stimulus onto local areas on the retinae or a fronto-parallel screen creates 2D aperture problems for the left and right eye green and brown arrows.
One of those models proposed that both disparity position and phase ambiguities were resolved by pooling disparity responses across spatial frequency and orientation Fleet et al.
In analogy to the 2D aperture problem and the intersection of constraints we can now define two plausible binocularr for solving the 3D aperture problem:. In the past, snowflakes appeared to fall in one plane slightly in front of me. Stereomotion does not pop out from disparity noise. Conversely, they argued that binocularly viewable features simply define internal aspects of an object s surface but not its boundaries.
The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. In the following we summarize shortcomings for each of the three main approaches to binocular 3D motion perception in terms of stereo and motion correspondence, 3D motion direction, and speed. Psychophysical evidence for the importance of local surface shape came from studies showing that stereoacuity and stereothresholds are, in fact, determined relative to the local 3D surface structure.
Seeing motion-in-depth using inter-ocular velocity differences.
Randolph Blake 1, 2 and Hugh Wilson 3. Role of inhibition in the specification of orientation selectivity of cells strreopsis the cat striate cortex.
Amygdala responses to fearful and happy facial expressions under conditions of binocular suppression. Stereo correspondence The first limitation is easily overlooked: Journal of the Optical Society of America B.
Stable perception of visually ambiguous apprkach. Rather, the consensus idea, embodied in several neural models of rivalry e. While on the topic of stereo from occlusion, we should mention second-order stereopsis, which represents the stereo extension of a number of second-order visual phenomena Wilson, Further, there are now established computational models of disparity selectivity for complex cortical cells.
Using vertical Gabor functions as a convenient example, the horizontal receptive field profiles of L and R inputs would be:. Integration of motion and stereopsis in middle temporal cortical area of macaques. Bqyesian stereo system can reconstruct depth from input with orientation disparity and even vertical disparity  but ho seems unlikely that the binocular motion system can establish similar stereo correspondences.
These results were obtained even though rivalry was simultaneously perceived. Biological Sciences are provided here courtesy of The Royal Society. With practice, observers can experience periods during which one image or the other is visible in its entirety. Dichoptic visual masking reveals that early binocular neurons exhibit weak ninocular suppression: It is shown that existing processing schemes of 3D motion perception such as interocular velocity difference, changing disparity over time, as well as joint encoding of motion and disparity, do not offer a general solution to the inverse optics problem of local binocular 3D motion.
For the sake of simplicity we ignore the non-linear aspects of visual space  and represent perceived 3D motion as a linear vector in a three-dimensional Euclidean space where the fixation point is also the starting point of the motion stimulus. Indeed, unpublished data from the Harris lab suggests that individuals differ in the degree to which these two factors contribute to perception of motion in depth Nefs et al.
We suggest that in analogy to 2D motion perception  tracking of features in depth coupled with binocular velocity constraints from motion processing provides a flexible strategy to disambiguate 3D motion direction and to solve the inverse problem of 3D motion perception.